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Old 01-21-2009, 04:33 PM   #71
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Default Re: Sailing Ships -At least until CCoI (Low-Tech) arrives

Quote:
Originally Posted by tbrock1031
ETA on the caravel information? My game's starting on the 31st, and I'd like to be able to present basic stats by then. I figure I'll be using some of the earlier galleon and carrack designs you posted for some of the other traffic in and around the starting port, including one ship that'll halt the caravel in "international" waters prior to leaving civilization completely.
I can promise it before then.

I've had other games take priority of my free time, sorry.
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Old 01-22-2009, 09:40 AM   #72
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Originally Posted by wajdi
Just a weird question from left field: what is the effect of sea-growth on the ship's bottom? Say. . . ship's owner/master has neglected to careen and scrape the bottom.
I've seen a reference that gives about a 20% decrease in speed due to marine growth on a hull. I know in the period SOP in the RN was for ship's laid up in harbor to be cleaned once every three years. But an Act of Parliament in 1708 stated that fast ships were to have their bottoms cleaned once every four months.

Marine growth was combated in a variety of ways through the period: the white stuff, the black stuff, the brown stuff, tallowing, wood sheathing, lead sheathing and copper sheathing.
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Old 01-22-2009, 01:26 PM   #73
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Default Re: Sailing Ships -At least until CCoI (Low-Tech) arrives

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Originally Posted by pyratejohn
Marine growth was combated in a variety of ways through the period: the white stuff, the black stuff, the brown stuff, tallowing, wood sheathing, lead sheathing and copper sheathing.
And let's not forget the most popular cleaning practice of all: keelhauling. ;)
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Old 01-22-2009, 01:31 PM   #74
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Old 01-31-2009, 12:06 AM   #75
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As promised, but in a very incomplete format with little to no flavour text. Expect edits of this post as I revisit the entries with a little more inspiration. The stats should be accurate, though.

Caravels


A caravel is a relatively small ship used for the voyages of exploration. It was celebrated for its manoeuvrability and weatherly qualities. First recorded in use by the Portuguese, the vessel is associated with both them and the Spanish. Most examples were two- or three-masted lateen-rigged ships, but later ships could be four-masted and many larger ships were at least partially square-rigged.

Etymology variously suggests Roman, Greek, Italian or Arabic origin for the term 'caravel' (and the vessel so named). The supporters of an Arabic origin point to a small ship made in the Muslim territories Algarve and Maghrebe to suit Atlantic sailing conditions. This vessel, known as a qârib, was well equipped to travel in shallow waters and was used as a fishing boat, coaster, and light warship. It is possible that this vessel eventually evolved into later caravels, but there is far from any consensus on the subject.

From humble beginnings as a coastal fishing boat, the caravel developed into one of the most important vessels not only for the history of the Iberian peninsula, but for the world as a whole. During the 15th and 16th centuries, the caravel enabled Europeans to traverse the wide oceans and reach the New World. Bartolomeu Diaz, Vasco da Gama, and Christopher Columbus all sailed in caravels and so did many lesser known explorers of the period. The vessel was seaworthy, could be managed by comparatively few people and handled well in coastal waters.

The distinguishing features that identify a vessel as a caravel are a gently sloping bow and single stern castle, a carvel-built hull and two or more masts with one or more lateen-rigged. Generally, at least the mizzen-mast was lateen-rigged and in the vessels known as caravela latina, the mainmast was lateen-rigged as well. The caravela redonda was rigged in a similar manner to a carrack, with a square foremast and mainmast, but a lateen-rigged mizzen-mast.

No archaeological evidence in the form of a preserved hull has been found, so modern reconstructions of caravels rely on the iconographic record, written treatises on shipbuilding, port records and ethnographic parallels.

Caravelão latina (78‘)
TL: 4
ST/HP: 156†
Hnd/SR: -3/4
HT: 12c
Move: 0.2/5.75
EWt: 30t
LWt: 80t
Load: 50t
SM: +8
Occ: 14
DR: 12/6
Range: -
Cost: $60K
Locations: 2M, O, S
Draft: 10‘

Caravelão is the dimunative of caravel and refers to a two-masted vessel in the classic style of caravels. This example is fairly typical for a 15th century vessel, presented here in a latina format, or with lateen sails. The beam is 21.5’ and the draft is fairly deep for such a light vessel. This would be typical for ships making voyages of exploration on the open sea and this ship is based on the replica Boa Esperança.

Caravelão redonda (78‘)
TL: 4
ST/HP: 156†
Hnd/SR: -3/4
HT: 12c
Move: 0.2/6
EWt: 30t
LWt: 80t
Load: 50t
SM: +8
Occ: 14
DR: 12/6
Range: -
Cost: $60K
Locations: 2M, O, S
Draft: 10‘

This is the same vessel as above, except that the sail configuration is square. This allows for more speed when sailing with the wind, at the expense of the ability to tack closer to the wind.

Optional Modifiers: A square sail makes it difficult to sail into the wind. Hnd is -1 to windward and speed is slower than a vessel with a lateen-sail or a full rig.

Caravel, exploration (73‘)
TL: 4
ST/HP: 165†
Hnd/SR: -3/5
HT: 12c
Move: 0.2/6
EWt: 35t
LWt: 85t
Load: 50t
SM: +8
Occ: 18
DR: 12/6
Range: -
Cost: $70K
Locations: 3M, O, S
Draft: 7‘

A three-masted, square-rigged vessel that is fast and handy. This vessel is based on the replica caravel The Matthew, which in turn is based on the ship John Cabot took from Bristol on his famous voyage.

The beam is 20’ and freeboard is 5’.

Optional Modifiers: A square sail makes it difficult to sail into the wind. Hnd is -1 to windward and speed is slower than a vessel with a lateen-sail or a full rig.

Caravela latina (68‘)
TL: 4
ST/HP: 178†
Hnd/SR: -3/5
HT: 12c
Move: 0.2/6
EWt: 44t
LWt: 100t
Load: 56t
SM: +8
Occ: 27
DR: 12/6
Range: -
Cost: $88K
Locations: 4M, O, S
Draft: 7‘

To many, Columbus’ Niña is the iconic caravel. While no plans or archaeological evidence exist, a modern reconstruction using the best data available was built in 1988-1990. When Columbus got the vessel, she was lateen-rigged, but he changed the sail plan before his first voyage. This is the original sail-plan.

The Beam is 17.3’ and freeboard is 5’.

Caravela redonda (68‘)
TL: 4
ST/HP: 178†
Hnd/SR: -3/5
HT: 12c
Move: 0.2/6.25
EWt: 44t
LWt: 100t
Load: 56t
SM: +8
Occ: 27
DR: 12/6
Range: -
Cost: $88K
Locations: 4M, O, S
Draft: 7‘

This is the Niña with the square-rigged sail plan that she sailed with under Columbus.

Optional Modifiers: A square sail makes it difficult to sail into the wind. Hnd is -1 to windward and speed is slower than a vessel with a lateen-sail or a full rig.

© 2008 Garðar Steinn Ólafsson
All rights reserved.


I meant to include the Portuegese Man O'War and a caravel-cog, as well as perhaps some later examples of caravels as they merge into the nao/carrack, but I didn't have the time or inclination right now. Apologies.
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Last edited by Icelander; 01-31-2009 at 12:11 AM.
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Old 01-31-2009, 06:50 AM   #76
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Thank you very much!
This stats are very usefull for the game I run.
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Old 01-31-2009, 06:37 PM   #77
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Ice, you are a genius! (I'd add a little more to that, but it'd get blanked out. ^_^_v ) And just in time for my game, no less! The caravel redonda is just what I needed.
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Old 09-19-2010, 06:46 PM   #78
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This thread is absolutely fantastic. Thanks for the work you've put into this Icelander. I wonder if you would be able to answer a question that I've been unable to (definitively) through my own research. Having stats for viking ships is great, but what about their co-evals? Your notes on the cogs say that they developed out of copying the scandinavian ships, so they show up around the 10th C or so. What would the Franks, Anglo-Saxons, etc. have been sailing around in during the 6th to 9th centuries? Would they just have been using emigrated Mediterranean ships like galleys and such?
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Old 09-19-2010, 09:31 PM   #79
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Default Re: Sailing Ships -At least until CCoI (Low-Tech) arrives

Quote:
Originally Posted by joncarryer View Post
What would the Franks, Anglo-Saxons, etc. have been sailing around in during the 6th to 9th centuries? Would they just have been using emigrated Mediterranean ships like galleys and such?
Galleys are not practical for the Atlantic Ocean, no.

Anglo-Saxon ships of that period would be very similar to Viking ones. As for the Franks, I confess that I have no specific knowledge of them, but would expect their vessels to have more in common with Viking vessels than Mediterranean ones.
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Old 09-20-2010, 02:57 AM   #80
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Skimming the thread, I see complete write-ups. IIRC the latest 'Ships PDF came out recently, and includes rules for building sailing ships (water lines + sails + oars + flat top deck). Compatibility?
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